Carignan's origins lie in northern Spain, where it is called Mazuelo. From there it moved energetically into southern France where plantings as recently as the late noughties outstripped those of Spain by as much as nine times. However, it can be something of a challenge, to grow as well as to drink. Carignan suffers from all sorts of fungal diseases and ripens late, ergo damp, cool climates are a no-go. Even when clean and ripe the wine can be testing: high in acidity and occasionally agricultural tannin. Yet carefully made examples can be delicious.